Keynotes

Jacob Lund Orquin: What eye tracking researchers (dis)agree about reporting

Department of Management, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

It has previously been pointed out that eye tracking research as a field lacks a common terminology and standardization (Holmqvist et al., 2011). We put this claim to a test and ask two simple questions. First, what do eye tracking researchers report in their scientific articles and second, when directly asked do eye tracking researchers agree about what is important to report? In this talk I will provide answers to these questions as well as third and more prominent one: What should we report in scientific eye tracking papers in order to maximize transparency and reproducibility? The conclusions are based on coding of nearly 100 eye tracking studies as well as an expert survey among eye tracking researchers. The project is joint work with Susann Fiedler, Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck, and Frank Renkewitz.

Maria Staudte: Studying gaze in spoken interaction

Computational Linguistics & Phonetics, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany

Beyond the observation that both speakers and listeners rapidly fixate the visual targets of referring expressions, it has been argued that such gaze may constitute part of the communicative signal. However, listener gaze has been examined mostly in laboratory settings, typically for examining language comprehension processes in response to predefined spoken stimuli and without considering the influence of such listener behaviour onto the speaker again.
I will present experimental work that explored the utility of listener gaze in natural(istic) and dynamic instruction-giving and -following scenarios. The data comprises scene view videos from the listener’s perspective, their gaze data, and verbal instructions from a speaker when a) the speaker could see and use only the listener’s scene view, or b) when the scene view along with the projected gaze cursor of the listener was available to the speaker. The analysis of such data is challenging and needs to deal with two problems: the dynamics of the context which require careful (manual) data annotation; and the reciprocal nature of such interactions, i.e. speech influences listener gaze and vice versa. We propose a combination of tools and analyses to (partly) overcome these issues but invite suggestions for and discussions of alternative approaches.

Mark Williams: Visual search behaviour and expertise in high-performance environments

Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Life Sciences, Brunel University London

In recent decades there has been increasing interest in identifying the visual search behaviours underpinning expert performance both in time constrained domains involving anticipation and in more self-paced, tasks that require aiming at a target object (i.e., the so called quiet eye phenomenon). This body of research has helped increase our understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying expert performance in sports and many other domains such as driving, law enforcement, and medicine. In this presentation, a critical overview is provided of contemporary research that explores the links between visual gaze behaviours and expert performance in both types of tasks. First, an attempt is made to highlight how gaze behaviours are shaped during performance in time-constrained situations by various task (e.g., conditions, rules, tactics) and individual (e.g., anxiety, fatigue) constraints. These constraints influence how information is picked up via the fovea and peripheral vision to guide perception and action. Second, recent research on the quiet eye phenomenon in aiming tasks such as archery is reviewed with a particular focus on identifying some of the methodological issues that impact upon its measurement as well as the theoretical mechanisms that provide an explanation for the effect. Finally, the implications of research on gaze behaviour and expertise is considered for performance enhancement in different high-performance domains with reference both to training anticipation and the quiet eye.